- I'll visit my grand father tomorrow. (future events)
- I'll mend your bike tomorrow. (promise)
- Will you open the door for me, please? (request)
- I'll get you some water. (offer)
- I'll break your neck if you play with matches again. (threat)
- I'd like some cakes, please. (request)
- Would you give some more sugar, please? (request)
- Would you like tea with milk? (offer)
- I shall play basketball tomorrow. (future events)
- Shall I open the door for you? (offer)
- Shall we go to the zoo? (suggestion)
- He should go to the doctor. (advice)
- He ought to go to the doctor. (advice)
- I may lend you some money. (probability 50:70%)
- May I have a piece of cake, please? (request)
-I might travel to Hurghada this summer.(possibility 10:30%)
- I can speak three languages. (ability)
- Can you lend me some money? (request)
- Can I help you? (offer)
-I could swim when I was five. (ability in the past)
-Could you tell me the meaning of 'cunning', please? (request)
1) can=(am,is,are)+able to قادر على=(am,is,are)+ capable of +V. ing. =have/has the ability to
* I can fly kites. = I'm able to fly kites. = I'm capable of flying kites.=I've the ability to fly kites.
* Marina can swim in the sea. = Marina is able to swim in the sea.
2) could=(was,were)+able to قادر على =(was,were)+capable of +V. ing. =had the ability to
* I could swim well when I was five. = I was able to swim well when I was five. = I was capable of swimming well when I was five. =I had the ability to swim well when I was five.
* Bassant could win the match. = Bassant was able to win the match.
3) In the future:
* Mariam will be able to get high marks if she studies hard.
* Mariam will be capable of getting high marks if she studies hard.
* Mariam will have the ability to get high marks if she studies hard.
Must be للتعبير عن الاستنتاج فى المضارع
-This must be Michael. I invited him to dinner. (=I feel sure.)
-Hassan must be ill. He didn't come to school today. (=I feel sure.)
Must have +P.P. للتعبير عن الاستنتاج فى الماضى
-I must have lost my keys. I can't find them anywhere. (=I feel sure.)
-Hassan must have been ill last Monday. He didn't come to the party.
May be للتعبير عن الاحتمال القوى فى المضارع
-This may be Michael. He said he would come today. (=I'm not sure.)
-Hassan may be at home. He didn't come to school today. (=It's probable.)
may have +P.P. للتعبير عن الاحتمال القوى فى الماضى
- I can't find my bag. I may have left it at home. (=It's probable.)
Might be=could be للتعبير عن الاحتمال الضعيف فى المضارع
-This is a foreign tourist. He might/could be English. (=It's possible.)
-Hassan might be in the club, but I don't think so.
Might/could have +P.P. للتعبير عن الاحتمال الضعيف فى الماضى
-Hassan came by bus today. He might have sold his car. (=I don't think so.)
Can't be للتعبير عن الاستحالة فى المضارع
-This can't be Manal. She is in Cairo now. (=I am sure.)
-Hassan can't be ill. He is playing football now. (=It is impossible.)
Can't have +P.P. للتعبير عن الاستحالة فى الماضى
-These are my keys. I can't have lost them. (=It is impossible.)
-Hassan can't have made mistakes. He got the full mark.
Should للتعبير عن النصيحة فى المضارع
-You should brush your teeth twice a day. (=It's advisable.)
-You shouldn't eat many sweets. (=It's advisable.)
should have +P.P. للتعبير عن اللوم او النصيحة فى الماضى
-I should have studied yesterday. I have an exam today. (But I didn't.)
-Hassan shouldn't have forgotten his mobile. (But he forgot it.)
Obligation and necessity
Must=(have to/has to) +v.inf للتعبير عن الضرورة والالزام فى المضارع
-I must revise before the test.(=It's necessary to revise….)
-I have to revise before the test. (=It's necessary for me to revise….)
-She has to revise before the test. (=It's necessary for her to revise….)
Will have to+v.inf للتعبير عن الضرورة والالزام فى المستقبل
-Next week, she will have to revise for the test.(=It will be necessary for her to …)
-He will have to train hard to join the national team.
Had to+v.inf للتعبير عن الضرورة والالزام فى الماضى
-Last week, she had to revise for the test.(=It was necessary for her to…)
-He had to stay at home because it was raining heavily.
-He wasn't late, so he didn't have to tale a taxi.(=It wasn't necessary for him to..)
للتعبير عن عدم الضرورة فى صيغتى المضارع والماضى نستخدم
didn't have to+inf. = It wasn't necessary to…
don't have to Needn't …
doesn't have to It isn't necessary to…
mustn't: prohibitionالمنع او التحريم –you mustn't smoke here.
- You mustn't park here.
=It's prohibited to …==It's forbidden to …=It's banned to …=It isn't allowed to …=
- The microscope enables us to see the micro organisms.
- It's probable for her to cheat in her exams. (= She may cheat…)
-It's possible for him to go to join the university. (= He might join…)
- It's advisable for you to go to the doctor. (=You should go…)
(= You ought to go…)(= If I were you, I'd go …)
used to + inf. (كان معتاد على شىء فى الماضى)
didn't use to + inf. النفى)) Did + فاعل + use to + inf.? الاستفهام))
I used to get up late in the past, but now I get up early.
When my sister was a baby, she didn't use to cry a lot.
Did you use to do sports when you were young?
What sports did you use to do?
I used to play football.
فاعل عاقل + (am/is/are-get) + used to + V. ing (معتاد على شىء حتى الآن)
I'm used to eating ice cream in summer.
He is used to doing his homework after school.
My father was/got used to reading newspapers. Now he doesn't.
فاعل غير عاقل + (am/is/are) + used to + V. inf (يُستخدم فى)
فاعل غير عاقل + (am/is/are) + used for + V. ing (يُستخدم فى)
+Pencils are used to write with. _ Pencils are used for writing.
+Watches are used to tell the time. _ Watches are used for telling the time.
A) Choose the correct answer:
1) Ahmed (able to-capable of-can-is) answer all these questions.
2) Around 2020, we will be able to (land-lands-landing-landed) space tourists on the moon.
3) Yesterday I (can-could-was able-was capable) to get home earlier.
4) He (must-mustn't-has to-had to) buy it from the supermarket last night.
5) You (must-have to-mustn't-has to) run quickly on the stairs. It's dangerous.
6) Yousef (doesn't have to-had to-must-mustn't) sell his car as it was necessary.
7) I got up early yesterday so I (have to-must-had to- didn't have to) take a taxi.
Mirvat (don't have to-must-doesn't have to-have to) go to school today as she is sick.
9) He's ill. He (must-have to-had to-mustn't) see his family doctor.
10) You (didn't have to-don't have to-had to-must) go for a walk as it isn't necessary.
11) (Do-Must-Does-Mustn't) Ramy have to run for the bus?
12) We must (learn-bring-know-teach) to do things for ourselves.
13) You mustn't smoke here. There is a "No (entry-waiting-smoking-parking) sign.
14) You should(turn on-turn off-put off-turn out)the computer after you finish using it.
15) You don't have to (buy-pay-boy-play) for the meal it's free.
16) I have to (try-buy-borrow-change) my shoes as they are too small for me.
17) I'm not sure he (will- won't- may- might) arrive now. It's half past six.
18) She (won't- may- will- might) see that film because it's boring.
19) Noha (will- may- might- perhaps) write a paragraph tonight. I'm sure.
20) She didn't find the keys.She(may- will have can't have- might have)forgotten them.It's possible.
21) She can't find her mobile phone. Someone (must have-may have- can't have-might have) stolen it. I am sure.
22) It (must-can't- mustn't-might) have been a ball. It was made of wool.
23) Maha (may have- shouldn't have- must- should have) swept the floor, but she didn't.
24) He (might have-can't have-must have- may have) gone to the cinema as he didn't have much money.
25) Ayman (must-should have-might have-shouldn't have) visited us, but he didn't.
26) The Vikings were from the (west- east- south- north) of Europe.
27) He (might-didn't-can't must) have come back late yesterday. It's possible.
28) Sally felt sick (when-while-as-during) the film.
29) You (don't have to-won't-mustn't-might not) play with matches as it's dangerous.
30) Mona (should have-can't have-could-must have) eaten the rice. She was asleep.
B-Rewrite the following sentences using the word(s) in brackets to give the same meaning:
a. It's necessary for us to study English. (must)
b. I had to revise yesterday for today's test. (necessary)
c. He has to book the tickets. (necessary)
d. What about going to the cinema? (Shall)
e. She might get married soon. (possible)
f. I had the ability to climb the ladder. (could)
g. Do we have to go? (Must)
h. May I have some more sugar, please? (Would)
i. You mustn't talk during exams. (forbidden)
j. Don't play with matches because you will burn yourself. (mustn't)
k. It was necessary for her to ride a camel yesterday. (She)
l. He might win the prize. (It's possible….)
m. It's possible that Zaki will buy a new car. (might)
n. Magdy might travel to Saudi Arabia next Monday. (possible)
o. I could drive a car when I was just 15. (capable)
p. It's advisable that he will stop smoking. (Should)
q. It's probable that Dina will attend the party. (may)
r. She must leave at once. (has to)
s. We have to invite him to dinner. (must)
t. It was necessary for us to study hard. (had to)
u. Noha drew funny pictures last summer. (used)
v. Kamal is always nice to people. (used)
w. It's prohibited to park here. It's a "No Parking" area. (mustn't)
x. My sister can speak three languages. (able/capable)
y. My habit was to swim every morning when I was in Hurghada. (used)
z. Yesterday I managed to drive a car for the first time. (could/able/capable)
aa. We use trees to provide us with oxygen. (used to/used for)
bb. Wesam did not study science yesterday. (should have)
cc. I'm sure that she sold her mobile. (must have)
dd. She was nervous while she was having the driving test. (during)
ee. I'm sure Columbus discovered America. (must have)
ff. He was late for school. It was necessary to come early. (shouldn't have)
gg. He didn't congratulate me. I'm sure he didn't know the good news. (can't)